Chinese women dating – Christian clerics helping Chinese men target poor girls in Pakistan for marriage, AP reports

Chinese women dating – Christian clerics helping Chinese men target poor girls in Pakistan for marriage, AP reports

Muqadas Ashraf was just 16 when her parents married her off to a Chinese man who had come to Pakistan looking for a bride. Less than five months later, Muqadas is back in her home country, pregnant and seeking a divorce from a husband she says was abusive.

She is one of hundreds of poor Christian girls who have been trafficked to China in a market for brides that has swiftly grown in Pakistan since late last year, activists say. Brokers are aggressively seeking out girls for Chinese men, sometimes even cruising outside churches to ask for potential brides. They are being helped by Christian clerics paid to target impoverished parents in their congregation with promises of wealth in exchange for their daughters.

Parents receive several thousand dollars and are told that their new sons-in-law are wealthy Christian converts. The grooms turn out to be neither, according to several brides, their parents, an activist, pastors and government officials, all of whom spoke to The Associated Press. Once in China, the girls — most often married against their will — can find themselves isolated in remote rural regions, vulnerable to abuse, unable to communicate and reliant on a translation app even for a glass of water.

“This is human smuggling,” said Aslam Augustine, the human rights and minorities minister in Pakistan’s Punjab province, in an interview with the AP. “Greed is really responsible for these marriages … I have met with some of these girls and they are very poor.”

Augustine accused the Chinese government and its embassy in Pakistan of turning a blind eye to the practice by unquestioningly issuing visas and documents. The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs denied that, saying China has zero tolerance for illegal transnational marriage agencies.

Human Rights Watch called on China and Pakistan to take action to end bride trafficking, warning in an April 26 statement of “increasing evidence that Pakistani women and girls are at risk of sexual slavery in China.”

  • U.S. approved thousands of child bride requests, and it was legal

On Monday, Pakistan’s Federal Investigation Agency arrested eight Chinese nationals and four Pakistanis in raids in Punjab province in connection with trafficking, Geo TV reported. It said the raids followed an undercover operation that included attending an arranged marriage.

The Chinese embassy said last month that China is cooperating with Pakistan to crack down on unlawful matchmaking centers, saying “both Chinese and Pakistani youths are victims of these illegal agents.”

The Associated beautiful chinese Press interviewed more than a dozen Christian Pakistani brides and would-be brides who fled before exchanging vows. All had similar accounts of a process involving brokers and members of the clergy, including describing houses where they were taken to see potential husbands and spend their wedding nights in Islamabad, the country’s capital, and Lahore, the capital of Punjab province.

“It is all fraud and cheating. All the promises they make are fake,” said Muqadas.

Working as a beautician in Pakistan’s capital, Mehak Parvez was earning $175 a month at a beauty parlor but wanted to do more to support her family and supplement her father’s income as a rickshaw driver.

Last year, Parvez visited her hometown, Faisalabad, to attend the wedding of a female relative, who married a Chinese man. This was a turning point in the life of Parvez, 18, who is a school dropout.

“I decided to do the same. I thought this is good for my future and in this way I will be able to help my family,” Parvez said.

While at the wedding, she spoke to the Pakistani assistant of one of the Chinese guests, who assured her of finding a Chinese man for marriage.

Parvez’s journey through the Chinese matchmaking process did not turn out as she had hoped.

Recent raid, arrests

Last week, Pakistan’s law-enforcing Federal Investigation Agency raided a similar wedding in Faisalabad and arrested several people for human trafficking.

In the days since, authorities have arrested almost a dozen people in other cities, including Chinese and Pakistani citizens. They stand accused of human trafficking, as well as arranging fake marriages between Pakistani women and Chinese men and forging documents.

Human Rights Watch has raised alarms about bride smuggling from Pakistan to China, saying many girls and women are at risk of being pushed into prostitution. The group said the allegations are similar to the pattern of trafficking women to China from at least five other Asian countries. Women’s families are paid thousands of dollars, but the women themselves can end up sold into sexual slavery for years.

FILE – In this April 29, 2019, photo, graffiti advertising a marriage agent is spray-painted on the wall of a warehouse in Pei County in eastern China’s Jiangsu province.

The Chinese Embassy in Islamabad says it has sent a task force to Pakistan to cooperate with law enforcement, and Beijing supports Pakistan’s efforts to ensure cross-border marriages are legal. However, the embassy statement disputed reports that Pakistani women are subject to forced prostitution or human organ transplants in China.

Quick process

Parvez said once she indicated she was interested in a marriage, the Chinese organizers moved quickly, finding a Chinese groom and setting their marriage for Nov. 19, 2018, in Faisalabad.

It was after her marriage ceremony, while she was waiting in Lahore for their travel documents, when she became suspicious as the wait grew longer.

“I was staying in a house with other Pakistani girls and soon realized things were not right,” she said. “I asked my husband through Google translation and he would tell me nothing.”

Parvez told VOA that when she told the Chinese hosts that she no longer wanted to go to China, the Pakistani agent started blackmailing her.

Christian community activist Saleem Iqbal, based in Lahore, has been working with the victims and said he had heard stories of blackmail and coercion from other victims.

He estimated 700 Christian girls have been taken to China under the pretext of marriages during the last few years. The number of married women is higher, Iqbal said.

FILE – A top private Pakistani television station airs images of several Chinese men with six local women, including two teenage girls, at an illegal matchmaking center in the eastern city of Lahore.

Christian families targeted

According to authorities and Christian community activists, the smuggling gangs are mostly active in Punjab province and mainly target poor Christian families for phony marriages. They had displayed banners in public places seeking young brides for Chinese men.

But media reports suggest Muslim girls have also been targeted.

“The gang members normally tell Muslim families the Chinese suitor has recently converted to Islam, and to the Christians they say the Chinese men have converted to Christianity,” said Saleem, adding that all such stories are fabricated.

Christian community leader Saleem is worried for the young women, some of whom are pregnant: “What will happen to the children? Who will marry these young mothers even if they get divorced?”

The newly married Parvez is also discussing getting a divorce.

“I am not upset that I did not travel to China,” she said.

Linh, a high school student, thought nothing of accepting a family friend’s casual invitation to visit the neighbouring district of Muong Khuong.

That family “friend” turned out to be a lying crook – he was in fact working for a human trafficking ring, and had taken a year to slowly befriend the 17-year-old.

En route to Muong Khuong, the teenager was kidnapped and brought to China, where she was forced to marry a stranger.

‘If you are trafficked, of course you will be raped. Probably everyone was raped,’ she recalled.

‘I became a wife there (in China). At that house, I had to obey everything they said or else I would be beaten. They beat me without fear because I am not Chinese.’

In the scenic rural highlands of northwestern Vietnam, girls like Linh, and as young as 13, have been disappearing from the remote villages at an alarming rate.

Kidnapped and sold to human traffickers, many of these young girls end up re-sold as brides in China, a country grappling with a gender imbalance in which men greatly outnumber women, as the programme Insight discovers. (Watch the episode here.)

A TRAFFICKER COULD BE ANYONE

Vietnam and China share a long mountainous and porous border, which has made it easier for traffickers to snatch girls from the villages and move them across the border.

‘There’s a lot of money in human trafficking. The people who sell girls can make tens of thousands of dollars on a sale,’ pointed out Michael Brosowski, founder of Hanoi-based charity Blue Dragon Children’s Foundation which rescues Vietnamese trafficking victims.

Between 2012 and 2017, more than 3,000 people, mostly women and children, were trafficked, according to the Vietnamese Ministry of Public Security. But these are just the official figures – the number of unreported cases is widely thought to be significantly higher.

Caitlin Wiesen, country director of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), pointed out that Vietnam is known as a source country for labour exploitation, sexual exploitation and forced marriages.

Poverty in remote areas, low education levels and a lack of jobs have created an environment where women feel they need to go out and find work, she said. Some, lured by promises of jobs, end up being trafficked by unscrupulous agents.

And these agents, or traffickers, explained Brosowski, are willing to invest weeks and sometimes months in getting close to a victim, so that they can make that “sale”.

There’s no typical profile of a trafficker; he or she can be anyone – from young, unemployed school dropouts, to elderly women selling tea in a marketplace, to even fellow teenage girls.

‘Traffickers can be male or female, they can be any age … most of the time, the traffickers have built a relationship with the victim, sometimes over many months,’ said Brosowski.

‘They may have even gone on holiday together, before the trafficker takes her to China.’

BEATEN INTO OBEDIENCE

That was the case for Linh (not her real name) who lives in Bac Ha, one of Vietnam’s most impoverished regions in Lao Cai where villagers rely heavily on small-scale farming as their main source of livelihood.

That region’s per capita income is around half that of the country, and many farmers feel trapped in a cycle of poverty.

Linh was duped and sold to a trafficking ring in China. She was oblivious to what was going on, ‘until I arrived in some district and saw Chinese characters. That’s when I realised I was trafficked. I was frightened’, she recalled.

She was moved from place to place, and finally sold as a bride to a family who beat her frequently – simply because she couldn’t speak their language.

‘You have to be completely obedient when you are over there,’ said Linh, now 19.

Fortunately, her resourceful father managed to track her down, to a home in Yunnan province where she was subsequently rescued by the authorities.

Then there’s Giang, who is also from Lao Cai – she was just 16 when she was kidnapped by a friend at a market last year.

She suspected that she had been drugged, as she suddenly found herself in China.

‘We hung out at the market and when we left to go home, they took me straight to China,’ recounted Giang, who wanted to be known only by this nickname. ‘When I knew what was going on, I was already in China.’

She refused to get married and cried every day, she said.

Giang was lucky – she met a Vietnamese guy who pitied her and sold his motorbike to pay her kidnappers for her release. The whole ordeal lasted five long agonising days.

EXTREME MEASURES TO GET A BRIDE

These two girls are just a fraction of the trafficked girls who are able to return home, with many more left trapped in a foreign country against their will.

But what’s fuelling this demand for Vietnamese brides in China, home to 1.4 billion people?

READ: The ‘leftover men’ of China, who just want to get married

WATCH: China’s men desperately seeking wives (4:44)

Massive gender imbalance, intense cultural pressure and expensive dowries have forced many men from poor villagers in China to resort to extreme measures to find themselves a bride.

China’s one-child policy, which came into force in 1979, has prevented around 400 million births, according to the Chinese government.

Coupled with the general preference among Chinese families for male offspring, it has resulted in China having one of the highest gender imbalances in the world – it is estimated that come 2020, there would be 55 million more males than females.

It is little surprise that some of these men look towards neighbouring countries such as Vietnam for lifelong partners.

 

This surplus of bachelors has caught the attention of human traffickers who hope to cash in. And a Chinese man – legitimately looking for a life partner – may not realise that the woman he is meeting is a victim of human trafficking.

The Vietnamese police investigated more than 1,000 cases of human trafficking between 2012 to 2017, and arrested more than 2,000 people for their involvement in this illegal trade.

However, not all marriages involving Vietnamese brides and Chinese grooms are forced ones, claimed matchmaker Lim, who maintained that some women were willing to be sold as wives.

‘Vietnamese women have a lowly status and so that’s why they come to China to get a husband,’ she elaborated. ‘People who want to come here, they are happy but the people who don’t (find happiness), they run away because they are anxious about their lives here.’

But the reality is, many young women from Vietnam have gambled on their marriages in China, driven by their extreme poverty – and fallen prey to scams that leave them open to abuse.

STIGMATISED, AFTER BEING RESCUED

The good news is that on average, about 100 victims return from China each year, estimated Nguyen Tuong Long, head of Lào Cai’s Department of Social Evils Prevention.

But often, these victims have been through sexual abuse and labour exploitation. ‘In many cases, victims were forced into prostitution. Consequently, most returned victims suffer from severe psychological trauma,’ he said.

The situation got so bad that the Chinese government embarked on a campaign to clean up those brothels, said Brosowski. ‘That form of trafficking has disappeared although it does keep popping up from time to time.’

Aside from the scars of their experiences, some of these victims find out that they are not even welcomed by their own family when they return home – simply because of the stigma associated with trafficked girls.

‘When these victims escape trafficking, they have already endured great physical and mental pain, and when they return to their communities and families, there is still prejudice,’ observed Nguyen. ‘The people believe that the victims prostitute themselves.’

Survivor Linh is familiar with that feeling of rejection – her relief at returning home soon turned to anger where she felt that people were judging and scrutinising her.

‘People looked at me like I am a stranger, but it is not like I wanted this to happen to me,’ she said.

However, she has since found some closure – she found out that her kidnapper confessed to the police a week after he sold her and was sentenced to prison. She hasn’t seen him since.

Her goal now is to graduate from high school and figure out what to do next.

‘At first when I just returned, I had these moments where I blamed myself,’ she said. ‘But since I went back to school, I have told myself it was not my fault … I have to be less harsh on myself so I can live better.’

Dec. Element: What You Need To Be Doing This Period for Your Admissions Plan Superior Papers Reviews

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School Shmool: Teaching Critical Technology Thinking

School Shmool: Teaching Critical Technology Thinking

As the end-of-school bell rings, middle schoolers immediately reach into sweatshirt pockets and colorful backpacks to reunite with their smartphones. Suddenly, the frenzy of voices is joined by the ding of new messages. Amidst the clanging lockers, students pose for photos with friends and giggle at the latest Snapchat filters. Even goodbye waves are accompanied with reminders to send messages or add each other to the latest group chat.

In their personal lives and in schools, most students eagerly embrace innovative technology and quickly gain tech fluency especially when it comes to smartphones. While proficient technology use is important, it’s not enough to prepare students to make thoughtful decisions. As the world’s future decision makers, our students must wrestle with the costs, benefits, promises, and perils of technology. National Geographic reporter Robert Draperpoints out that technology often offers the best and worst at the exact same time. In other words, most new tech isn’t all good or all bad. New infrared cameras can help save endangered pandas, for example, but they can also subject us to Orwellian surveillance.

In order for students to critically evaluate the technology they use, they need more than how-to classes. Proficient smartphone use doesn’t mean you can reasonably consider how it’s impacting your life or when you should put your phone away to focus on other things. Learning to code is great but it doesn’t prepare you to consider the way algorithms shape the social media world. Instead of just teaching students shmoop.pro how to use technology, let’s also teach them how to think about it.

Below, I offer a few suggestions for where to start if you want to integrate critical technology thinking into your classroom.

Take a Reasoned View

Before you jump into tech conversations with your students, take a moment to examine your own views. Are you preoccupied with a new app’s possibility for bullying? Are you enamored by the ways a new device will make your life better?

Dana Boyd, author of It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens, points out that teachers, along with most adults, are typically divided into two tech-thinking camps: techno-utopians embrace technology as the solution to massive world problems while cyber-dystopians panic over the dire possibilities of each new change. Both schools of thought have merit, but neither is enough to teach our students how to thoughtfully analyze technological possibilities. When students think about miniscule new cameras, for example, they must use both views: On one hand, the smaller cameras may allow citizens to expose harsh government actions but they may also broadcast personal conversations without consent. Instead of falling into an extreme view, adopt a reasoned approach that considers benefits as well as costs.

Teaching Tech Through Literacy

Teaching how to think about technology doesn’t mean that you just load up on expensive computers or equipment. When we consider critical digital consumption as more than a how-to guide, we can build the conversations into lessons in many subjects.

During a recent fellowship at Tulsa Institute For Teachers with Dr. Denise Dutton, I researched ways to teach critical technology skills without being tied to a specific piece of technology. Literature, for example, offers plenty of opportunities. Consider Jean Craighead George’s 1959 novel ‘My Side of the Mountain,’ a text I used in my own 5th grade classroom. In the fictional, pre-internet world, protagonist Sam Gribley runs away from home and makes a life in the woody Catskill Mountains. The book offers a perfect backdrop to discuss how tech has changed the coming-of-age experience. How would Sam’s experience be different if he could just use GPS to find his destination? Would he have avoided mistakes and their accompanying discoveries if he could watch a Youtube tutorial for how to make a fire?

A novel written before a new technology comes into vogue isn’t out-of-date; it’s an opportunity to discuss how technology changes the way we live and interact. Mine your bookshelves and library turntables for texts that work for your class.

Read Up

While you probably can’t cover every area of technological influence, there are plenty of smart books about the way technology is changing our students’ lives. If you’re concerned about the way that devices impact student interaction, check out MIT professor Sherry Turkle’s work. Her latest book, Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Agefocuses on how technology impacts student talk. Alone Together, also by Turkle, is a research-heavy take on how technology impacts relationships and peer connections. Another text to check out is Alan Lightman’s recently released book In Praise of Wasting Time in which he analyzes the cumulative impact of the constant connectivity made possible by smartphones, laptops, and smartwatches. A quick trip to your library or local bookstore will yield additional options.

No matter what subject you teach, consider integrating critical technology thinking. You don’t have to be a master coder, viral Youtuber, or cutting-edge social media user to guide students towards thoughtful digital consumption. Instead, think about how to leverage books or lessons that you already have. Our students need more than new gadgets to navigate the ever-evolving world of technology.

EducationWorld is pleased to present this article contributed by C.M. Rubin. The piece is part of Rubin’s online interview series Global Search for Education, in which she joins thought leaders as they explore big-picture education questions that all nations face. For this series and her other online series “How Will We Read?”, she received a 2011 Upton Sinclair award. Rubin is also the author of three bestselling books, including The Real Alice in Wonderland.

Flash forward a decade or so. How do we feel about girls and games today? How do we feel about our STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) issues? And how do we feel about using games to help students grasp difficult math and science concepts–games that let them actively engage with learning?Doom, Duke Nukem, Abe’s Oddysee, Driver, Enter the Matrix…I watched as my husband and his business partners launched some of the biggest games in the world. ‘Is this just a guy thing?’ I wondered. What about girls? Girls wanna play games, too. ‘There is no market for girl games,’ explained the male marketing director. ‘Oh really?”

I am pleased to welcome Lucien Vattel, CEO and founder of GameDesk, and Asi Burak, President of Games for Change, to talk about Girls and Games.

Are there games that promote STEM that are created for girls? What are some of the best learning games for girls?

Asi Burak: I belong to the camp that believes that the games industry only scratches the surface in terms of potential mainstream audiences, and the breadth of issues and genres we can tackle, beyond what we’re seeing today. Fortunately, some developers and publishers recognize the huge opportunity and necessity to address girls, especially with STEM games. Our only barriers are legacy, public perception and norms. A good example, and relatively new, is PBS’s SciGirls – a TV show that is accompanied by online games and activities.

There are also bold efforts that directly aim at ‘converting’ girls into game developers, designers and coders such as Girlstart, Girls Who Code and the initiative by Dell and the Girl Scouts called Be The Game Developer. What these efforts have in common is the belief and understanding that girls and women MUST be part of this emerging medium, both as consumers and as creators.

Lucien Vattel: There are many games currently designed, particularly in the science and math areas, where female perspective is definitely taken into the design. There aren’t a lot of girl-focused games, but definitely the design-learning type games — what we call mobile sandbox type games — are targeted to girls, especially in the design and engineering process. Look at the effort being made in MineCraftEdu, for example — the amount of girl contributions is highly significant. The different sandbox type games that are out there now put kids in a position to openly design and explore, and a lot of the inventor games have kids construct Rube Goldberg or simple machines. There’s a fantastic game called Newton’s Playground that focuses on bridging natural creativity to engineering and has shown a lot of promise with the girl population.

On the bright side, there is more debate around this than ever before, and more programs and products that try to change the equation. So I’m optimistic, but it may take longer than we’d like.

Generally speaking, games are mostly developed by men and most of the big game companies are run by men. Do you think that has an impact on the appeal of the end product? Do you think there are any strategies that might be used to make the end product appealing to both girls and boys?

Asi Burak: I am confident it has a tremendous impact. The Game Developers Conference (GDC) brings together in San Francisco more than 20,000 game developers every year to discuss and engage with the latest and most exciting ideas around game design and development. However, when I look around, 90% of the attendees are white males. People in the industry speak about the lack of diversity more than ever before, but change is slow. According to the last figures I’ve seen, only 10% of the folks who work in the games industry are females. If you dig deeper and look for hard-core coders or designers, you would find only 3-4% females. Naturally, that affects the types of games being developed. It’s a chicken and egg cycle – if girls don’t find games that speak to them, and are not encouraged to become ‘gamers,’ then there is less incentive for the big publishers and developers to make products for them.

Lucien Vattel: Without a doubt, that is absolutely the case. However, in the general independent games arena, there’s been a lot of really fantastic, unique and different games that come out of girl development groups and girl-driven design groups. That hasn’t completely permeated the education space yet, but there’s an incredible amount of designers who are women. I think if you look at a game called Reach for the Sun, there were a lot of female designers on that game. So, I think the strategy to create games appealing to both boys and girls is simple — hire more women/girls.

Asi Burak: Absolutely. I was really happy to learn that Robin Hunicke, who keynoted the 2013 Games for Change Festival, is one of the faces of the Google campaign. We need big efforts and aggressive campaigns to change the very imbalanced picture. It’s great to see Robin, Leigh Alexander, Jane McGonigal, Brenda Romero and other thought-leaders emerging and changing the public perception of what the games industry is all about and what games are. At the Games for Change Festival, 50% of our speakers are females. Part of it is our intention, but the other part has to do with more females pushing the boundaries of the medium. We partnered with Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn on ‘Half the Sky Movement’ to create four games specifically designed around the empowerment of women and girls. Perhaps the best evidence that change is coming: our Facebook game has reached over 1.3 million players, and 80% of them are female. There is a clear demand for high-quality experience for women and girls; we just need to make sure we change the supply side.What do you think of the Google initiative to encourage girls to code? Will it help?

Lucien, can you tell us about games specifically related to developing math and science skills?

Geomoto focuses on earth science and geoscience through two games: Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics. This is an interactive set of games that uses LEAP Motion technology to teach players about these scientific concepts.

Continental Drift is a puzzle game that encourages players to recognize patterns and use information to make hypotheses, test theories and use reverse engineering techniques to understand geological models. The students’ mission is to return present-day Earth to its Pangea state.

We’ve found that the LEAP Motion technology, which tracks hand movement, resonates with female students, and they are more easily able to grasp difficult scientific concepts by engaging in natural, physical movements. Plate Tectonics allows students to virtually create geographic features by pulling, smashing and grinding tectonic plates together. This game also uses the LEAP Motion Controller, allowing players to produce the motion of the plates using hand gestures. Initial challenges focus on exposure to the vocabulary surrounding plate tectonics, with later levels requiring specific observations about the structures created from the plate collisions.

Mathmaker is a remedial math program that has a long history of helping at-risk students attending large urban schools struggling to reach proficient levels in mathematics. Students engage in a carefully structured series of game-making activities that require them to grapple with and apply mathematic standards in game design, game logic and game programming activities. The curriculum is designed to improve students’ mathematic proficiency, increase students’ motivation in math and positively impact students’ STEM identities.

Mathmaker was used in a pilot program in a California high school, and the data demonstrated strong quantitative and qualitative results, with an increase of an average of 20 percent on mathematics proficiency tests. Additionally, 80 percent of students posted math content improvements from pre to post-tests. The Mathmaker program allows students to create their own games by applying mathematic principles, and this allows students to create and produce games they want to play.

When given the tools to create games, we found female students to be incredibly creative, and we actually hosted a games course at a Southern California high school specifically for female students. We not only learned that a lot of girls were interested in games and game development, but also that the games they created had to do with social, cultural and emotional interactions, which is a growing market in the video game industry focusing on female players.

Social Work The Case Of Brady Week 4 Discussion Plummer Psychology Homework Market: Compromise Isn’t Always a Good Choice

Social Work The Case Of Brady Week 4 Discussion Plummer Psychology Homework Market: Compromise Isn’t Always a Good Choice

The word ‘compromise‘ is commonly comprehended by many as to come to terms, to settle a dispute by mutual understanding, to meet each other halfway. It is actually the correct definition but it is definitely not a requisite thing in life as most of us presume. As Edmund Burke once stated,’All government–indeed, every human benefit and enjoyment, every virtue and every prudent act–is founded on compromise.’ The word compromise indubitably holds a positive touch. When we hear about someone’s act of compromise it clearly melts our hearts.

However, it would not be imprecise to say that compromising on your goals is not always a reliable option. Sometimes you need to stand by your beliefs and principles against all odds. Many a time you have to stay determined and focused without compromising to make your mark in the pages of history. Whether we talk about leaders, sportsman or human beings which are adored by friends and foes alike, history brings testimony to the fact that they don’t compromise and standing by their beliefs to achieve their goals.

Jeremy Lin, 27, the professional American Basketball player of NBA is the best illustration of how not compromising and standing for your dreams turn your life on the path of success and fame. In his college days he was considered the weakest guy on the team but today he has established himself as a strong, fast-paced offensive player. No player would have faced so many racial issues as he did during his college. He regularly heard bigoted jeers at games. Being an Asian his fellows used to tease him by saying him to go back to his country, many a time he was made to sit on the bench instead of playing though he was a team player he never loses his ambition, he never reacted to the chants. He once said ‘I expect it, I am used to it, this is what it is’. He acclaimed his NBA success to playing without pressure. He said ‘I am not in a battle with what everybody else thinks’. Due to his standpoint and not heeding to people marks he is considered as the most famous Asian-American basketball player today in NBA.

Another prominent example from history is the great leader ‘Martin Luther King Jr’ who through his actions and fortitude showed the world how he did not compromise on his dream and brought an end to slavery and racial discrimination. Despite much opposition, allegations, and agony, he stood by his point and combat racial inequality using non-violence movement. Had he feared the admonitions of the people homeworkmarket me and compromised on his ambition , there would never have been a revolutionary change in the society.

From the above discussion, there are no second thoughts to the notion that those who do not compromise on their principles, face hardships and oppositions with courage and fortitude attain a place in the memories of people that even death fails to obscure these memories. Stephen Hawking, Oprah Winfrey, Malala Yousafzai, and J.k Rowling are the prominent people whose affiliation with their goals not only earned them fame but also made them a symbol of courage and motivation to others. Consequently, one should not compromise for the fear of failure and opposition but one should work hard and face the hardships with courage so that he may make his mark in this world.

Competition or Cooperation are certainly two opposite words. Beyond the shadow of a doubt, both play a significant role in our stages of life. Bertrand Russell in his book ‘The Conquest of Happiness’ compiles a chapter ‘Competition’ which he included in a part named ‘Causes of Unhappiness’. Many a person may not consent with him or me supporting his point that competition is actually is not a cause of satisfaction. Having in a competition with someone only gives you depression and lavishing all your time thinking about outshining the people around. Though competition urges you to become not only better but best which is actually an admiring thing, but nowadays in the avarice of becoming best one forgets about one fellow humans. In one’s zest of competing with others, one often neglect one’s family, friends or children no matter how endearing they all are, but his self-esteem does not allow him to think about anything else. Whereas, word Cooperation, on the other hand, itself holds a beautiful meaning.

Bertrand Russell writes ‘The only thing that will redeem mankind is cooperation‘. We are living a hectic life today. We are always busy in something or other. Similarly, we are also occupied in being egocentric. With so much advancement in life, so much struggle is needed. Indubitably we are living a better life than our ancestors, but this modern life is lacking tranquility. When we come in competition with someone we not only become obsessed with it but also form rivalries. Secondly when in a competition we only depend on ourselves. We do not care whether we would be able to reach this thing or not, we never think of its uses or drawbacks, what we only think of is to outclass everyone or to prove ourselves to everyone.

Competition to attain influence, power and dominance over others set the stage for the worst nightmares of humanity. Hitlers’ obsession for power and its consequences in the form of World War II consumed the lives of 6 million people. Wars and violent conflicts are the terrible illustrations of competition between the opposing forces which exploit each and every resource in their possession to attain might and dominance.

On the contrary, cooperating with other does not only build good relations but also enrich your mind with new and unique ideas. When we cooperate with others we meet new people, we get to know new things, we share thoughts, we help each other and most of all we succeed together. When we reach our goal with each other’s help we celebrate it together, we can assure that there is someone always to back us up in our hard times. There exist so many examples from history, literature or even present time that shows how collaboration helped them in their tough journeys of life. Whether it was a cooperative society, cooperative leaders or cooperative humans all proved themselves to be followed as an example.

The processes of cooperation have played a major role in shaping the history. Let’s discuss the example of UN (United Nations), an intergovernmental organization that aims at promoting international cooperation and resolution of conflicts through dialogues and negotiation rather than deadly conflicts and tormenting wars. The UN’s mission is to preserve world peace and create harmony. After the second world war, a joint declaration by USA, UK, Northern Ireland, China, Belgium, Australia, CostaRica, Canada, Cuba and many other states was signed. UN was formed to get victory over the enemies of humanity. For liberty, independence, religious freedom, human benefits, and justice, all states cooperated with one another. 70 years of UN is an emphatic reminder of the notion that international cooperation is the only way to defeat the monster of terrorism, hunger, gender inequality, unemployment, and poverty. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Food Aid, Aid to Refugees, Protecting Children, Peacekeeping missions, War Crimes prosecution and Fighting AIDS are some of the notable achievements that would have never been attained by one person.

Sports provides us with the best example of cooperation. How all members of the team forget their personal identity and work only for the benefit of the team. Although sports are competitive by nature when there is a cooperation between the members they motivate each other and play as a single entity, they pave their way to winning.

Many people especially parents believe that a competitive state is healthy for children as it prepares them to face the modern society but I believe they should tell their children more about cooperation as it helps children learn to communicate, to build good relation in society and mark their name in society by helping others.

Many people assume the word education as the knowledge gained in schools. This is common mistake as we all relate the word education to only schools, colleges or universities. Living a restless life, many beings especially parents or guardian thinks they are meeting their duties of giving their children a good future by sending their children to best schools. And why should not they be satisfied? Sending their children to best schools, providing them with all facilities, fulfilling their demands is all what makes them best and earn them prestige. We are living in the 21st century, certainly school is important, today without school education, getting a job is beyond the bounds of possibility as all career paths require education. Education is a base and everybody knows its importance too. Not only a person but also a nation can never survive without modern education.

Education is defined as the acquisition of values, skills or habits other than knowledge.You can learn skills from school of course, the main purpose of an institution is to spread knowledge, so you can become rich in knowledge of this world too.

Schools obviously teach its pupil about values. Institutions improve your personality , it gives you the knowledge of universe too but you can never guarantee reverence and success by only getting education from schools.

A little girl is bragging about her living standard, about the money they have, about her big house in front of her friends who do not belong to a very rich family or do not live in a big house. In short the girl is degrading her fellows. Whose mistake is it now that the girl is behaving in a conceited manner? Should the parents of little girl’s fellows complain to the school staff for her manners? No. Its not their concern that how is the girl’s nature. Of course, its the duty of parents to give them proper time, to make sure they are in a good company, they are not hurting their friends or fellows, they show good behavior to everyone. Parents can not complain to teachers or any institution for the bad behavior of their children at home because its not their job. Their job is only to teach them right or wrong, next comes the duty of parents to see if they observe what they are being taught.

Influence play a great role. Influence is created on anyone without any exertion of force. A mother can make her daughter behave the way she wants by rebuking her at the time but not always. Chastising does not always work. Sometimes too much criticizing or enforcement convert things from bad to worse. Mostly we repeat things just in anger to show others what we can do or not. On the other hand influence can be made without any enforcement. When you do some good act or deed, everyone try to follow it. There is a common saying; ‘Man is known by the company he keeps’

We do what people around us do. We follow things that impress us. Influence is not always good but its definitely very powerful. A good leader always leaves an influence on its people, similarly children always follows their parents’ footsteps. There are many leaders from history who showed how their influence on people led the whole nation to path of success. Still today, leaders try to influence people through their actions, dedication and passion to obtain their objectives.

A worker will never do his job properly if his boss does not take any interest in work. An executive’s charge is to create his good influence on his workers. Though he hire all well-educated or deserving candidates but why should they put so much effort in their work if the head himself does not care. Despite that they are graduates from good institutions but still comes the point we are discussing; education does not only comes from schools or it does not only mean learning or outshining others by your knowledge. It includes so many other things that result when you learn from your people around, this is why most people will agree with me that education results from Influence other than school.

Its a common adage ‘No body is perfect’. A lot of people believe in this saying but there are some who claims to be perfect or credits their perfectness for all that they have achieved. What does the word ‘Perfection’ really imply? Flawlessness, faultlessness,sublimity, magnificent; all interpret the word Perfection. Have we ever met a person in all our life who is exemplary by all means? Frankly, No. I would rather say that Perfection is the result of success not success is the result of perfection. This is certain that perfection is an impossible goal, many people easily accept their flaws or faults and give up. But this definitely not the right thing to do, accepting your faults is a good thing but giving up is at the same time the worst thing. We should never give up because we do not find ourselves perfect instead of that we should continue our struggles in the face of adversities with the talents we possess. We don’t need to be perfect but we need to be excellent in what we do. Hard work matters more for success than perfection and of course the ingredient of luck makes the recipe more delicious.

How true has Aristotle said ‘Pleasure in the job puts perfection in the work’

Work needs to be done with pleasure, enjoyment and concentration. When we back down because we don’t feel perfection in it, we can never succeed. When we aim only for perfection we only surrender ourselves to stress. In continuous thirst of outshining others and becoming the best,we just waste our precious time and energy. The truth is really not that we admire perfection but we are envious of each other. We examine things on their face value and miss out necessary details though we know that we are living in an imperfect world filled with disparities, injustices, grievances and struggle at every step. If we run after perfection we will get nothing but if we do our ordinary work with assiduousness or excellency, it will definitely bring perfection in our lives.

There exists so many examples from history, literature or present that manifest how struggle of the leaders or heroes made their imperfect lives perfect that still today everyone admire.

Lets take a glance back at the life of Thomas Alva Edison, the inventor of bulb. His invents influenced so many lives around the world, in fact influenced the whole world. He was taught at home by his mother. At and early age he developed hearing deficiency. He sold candies and newspaper on train. He sometimes sold vegetables to surcharge his income. His life was not perfect by any means. He faced so many problems but that did not refrain him from struggling. His inventions include Fluoroscopy, Telegraph Improvements, Motion Pictures, Mining and Rubber. He did not invent this all at one time but he spent his life striving for these. If he had given up, we would have all been living in dark today. His life was not exemplary but after trying and succeeding he made it ideal and achieved perfection out of misery. Today people remember him by his work, many places have been named after him, museum has been built after him. And these places are created to honor his achievements.

There would be hardly any one in the world who likes complainers but along with it is also true that we all do complains for one reason or other as Dejan Stojanovic said;

‘Some people complain there are too many people on earth,
Some people complain about secret societies,
Some people accuse others of not being able to wake up early.
Almost all people complain about something.’

Bu the question is do we really need to complain for every little thing? Some think that people who make their desires or needs known to others by making noise (by complaining) are the ones who get what they want. This is a common thing that instead of changing what we don’t like, we chose complaining as the first choice. We spend too much energy in complaining which can be used to make things better. Though complaining does not always work, we still use it as a strategy.

From a playing game to a bigger exam, when we are about to lose; we protest. Since our childhood, we have been listening to a story ‘The Boy Who Cried Wolf‘. This story has always been told as a cautionary tale, the boy who cried for sympathy through unjustified ways from others definitely got it but lost their trust. Similarly, when in a game or exam we complain; we may achieve our goals but not respect. Everyone around us consider it as an achievement gained by tricky ways devoid of any praise. Like an old famous saying;

The squeaky wheel gets the grease.

This is an American-idiom that conveys idea that the most noticeable or loudest problems are the most likely ones to get attention. This means if you tell your problems loud enough to every one, you will likely get their attention but at the same time it is true that no one likes the squeaky wheel. One may get what one wants by begging or complaining but it creates an impression of weakness at the same time. Every indvidual is different from his fellows. We all have our priorities. We all think differently. Some think complaining for needs is their right. Some says its right to make noise to make your needs known. Others define complaining as weakness, way to hide your failure. Simply put, we all have our own ways of thinking and like so many people in the world I believe that the only way to attain something is through dedication and hard work. If that does not work, instead of putting and wasting vital energy in complaining we should concentrate it in solving the problem by utilizing every mean in possession. Rather than complaining its better to think of our blessings first.

Unhappiness meets us everywhere. Be it rich or poor, young or old; whoever you meet you will find that each one has its own trouble. It’s true that life surprise us at every step with new challenges, the struggle for life will always interfere with your existence. Some says that it is not true as there are some who possess everything (rich). But as I said we are humans, we love to assume things. A poor person is so occupied with his struggle for existance that he mostly found complaining of his wretched life. The rich is so worried about his business and making money (outshining others) that he also complains of his busy and hustled life. The young students always complain of their hard study life. To put in simple words, we are all struggling for success, we are all running after something. Some are busy in pleasing their GODS, some to be in good books of teachers, some in making their parents proud, some in proving themselves. Who is happy then? The simple answer is ‘Those who has become emancipated from the materialistic territory of life and find peace by helping out their fellow humans through every mean available’. They are the one who will find life much more mirthful than it used to be.

One of the sources of unhappiness is to compete with other. There exists a paradox that we wish to be like our competitor but at the same time we get preoccupied with envy and start complaining about it. We can never be happy if we continue to feel envy. All bad things are connected with each other and any one of them can become the cause of other. So is complaining, if we complain all the time it creates an impression of a jealous, weak and insolent person who always complain and never thank for the blessings he possess. If we always chose complaining for our needs to be known, it will itself become our need and we will find our self helpless in any matter without it.

To me its a negative flash, problems are meant to be solved not complained. When we find ways for solving it instead of protesting, we can not only come over our problems but also discover our hidden abilities and strength. It’s not the time to complain, it’s the time to show the critics who complain about your weakness, what you can do. Its time to bring a positive change that can never be brought by worrying or showing dissatisfaction. It can only be brought by focusing on the things that can help you in achieving what you want.